The Group of 77 (G-77) was established on 15 June 1964 by seventy-seven (77) developing countries signatories of the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Developing Countries” issued at the end of the first session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva. Beginning with the first Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77 held in Algiers (Algeria) on 10 – 25 October 1967, which adopted the “Charter of Algiers”, a permanent institutional structure gradually developed which led to the creation of Chapters of the Group of 77 with Liaison offices at main UN centers worldwide.
The evolution and history of the Group of 77 have been intimately linked with the United Nations system, demonstrating the commitment of the Global South to the goals and objectives of the Charter of the United Nations. Today, the G-77 represents the global South with over 6 billion of the Planet’s inhabitants and accounting for two-thirds of the Nations of the World.
The Group of 77 is the largest intergovernmental organization of developing countries at the United Nations, which provides the means for the countries of the South to articulate and promote their collective economic interests and enhance their joint negotiating capacity on all major development issues within the United Nations system, and promote South-South cooperation for development. The Charter of Algiers adopted by the First Ministerial Meeting as the First Development Platform that established the Group’s 4 principles: unity, solidarity, complementarity and cooperation
The South Summit is the supreme decision-making body of the Group of 77. The First and the Second South Summits were held in Havana, Cuba, on 10 – 14 April 2000 and in Doha, Qatar, on 12 – 16 June 2005, respectively. In accordance with the principle of geographical rotation, the Third South Summit is due to be held in Kampala, Uganda in the second half of 2020. A commemorative summit was convened on 14-15 June 2014 in Santa Cruz (Plurinational State of Bolivia) on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of The Group of 77.
The Annual Meeting of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the States Members of the Group of 77 is convened at the beginning of the regular session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York. Periodically, Ministerial Meetings in preparation for UNCTAD and WTO sessions and the General Conferences of UNIDO and UNESCO are convened. Special Ministerial Meetings and High-level conferences are also convened, as needed. Other Sectoral Meetings in various fields of South-South cooperation, High-level Panel of Eminent Personalities of the South are also convened on a regular basis to review various development issues related to the agenda for development.
The chair country, which is the highest political body within the organizational structure of the Group of 77, rotates on a regional basis (between Africa, Asia-Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean) and is held for one calendar year in all the Chapters. Currently, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the chair country of the Group of 77 in New York for the year 2022
The Executive Secretariat of the Group of 77 is a compact permanent secretariat established by the First South Summit and is located at the UN Headquarters in New York. The Secretariat provides institutional support to the Group as a whole to the Member States and to the chair country. It is entrusted with the mandate of ensuring the effective follow up implementation of the Group’s decisions and outcomes regarding various processes related to North-South and South-South cooperation.
The Secretariat also has a core mandate in coordinating the Group’s initiatives in South-South cooperation. It also ensures overall coordination with G-77 Chapters as well as with various networks and institutions of the South. The Secretariat activities are financed by annual contributions provided by the Member States of the Group of 77 in accordance with relevant decisions of the South Summits.
The Group of 77 Headquarters are located at the UN main Secretariat building in New York City.
The Group of 77 has 6 chapters with liaison offices located in the main UN centers in:
The functioning and operating modalities of the work of the G-77 in the various Chapters have certain minimal features in common such as a similarity in membership, decision-making and certain operating methods. A Chair, who acts as its spokesperson, coordinates the Group’s action in each Chapter in accordance with paragraph 12 of the G77 Ministerial Declaration adopted on 24 June 1994 on the occasion of the Commemoration of the Group’s Thirtieth Anniversary. The Declaration established the terms of reference and centers of operations of the Group’s chapters.
Although the membership of the G-77 have, as of today, increased to 134 countries from Africa, Asia- Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean, the original name was retained due to its historic significance. The Group has 133 countries Member States plus China; there is only one type of State Membership and there is no special guest, nor observer nor invitee States.
Arabic, English, French and Spanish are the official languages of the Group of 77.
The original logo of the G77 was designed for the first time on the occasion of the Group’s First Ministerial meeting which was held from 10 to 25 October 1967 in Algiers, Algeria. Other logos were designed on the occasion of summits ministerial meetings, high-level conferences and other commemorative meetings.
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